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* License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no licenseGreg Kroah-Hartman2017-11-021-0/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license. By default all files without license information are under the default license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2. Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0' SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text. This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and Philippe Ombredanne. How this work was done: Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of the use cases: - file had no licensing information it it. - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it, - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information, Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords. The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files. The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s) to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was: - Files considered eligible had to be source code files. - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5 lines of source - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5 lines). All documentation files were explicitly excluded. The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license identifiers to apply. - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was considered to have no license information in it, and the top level COPYING file license applied. For non */uapi/* files that summary was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 11139 and resulted in the first patch in this series. If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930 and resulted in the second patch in this series. - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in it (per prior point). Results summary: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------ GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270 GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17 LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15 GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14 ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5 LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4 LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1 and that resulted in the third patch in this series. - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became the concluded license(s). - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a license but the other didn't, or they both detected different licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred. - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics). - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier, the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later in time. In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so they are related. Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks in about 15000 files. In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the correct identifier. Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch version early this week with: - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected license ids and scores - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+ files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the different types of files to be modified. These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to generate the patches. Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <> Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <> Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
* block, bfq: add full hierarchical scheduling and cgroups supportArianna Avanzini2017-04-191-0/+10
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Add complete support for full hierarchical scheduling, with a cgroups interface. Full hierarchical scheduling is implemented through the 'entity' abstraction: both bfq_queues, i.e., the internal BFQ queues associated with processes, and groups are represented in general by entities. Given the bfq_queues associated with the processes belonging to a given group, the entities representing these queues are sons of the entity representing the group. At higher levels, if a group, say G, contains other groups, then the entity representing G is the parent entity of the entities representing the groups in G. Hierarchical scheduling is performed as follows: if the timestamps of a leaf entity (i.e., of a bfq_queue) change, and such a change lets the entity become the next-to-serve entity for its parent entity, then the timestamps of the parent entity are recomputed as a function of the budget of its new next-to-serve leaf entity. If the parent entity belongs, in its turn, to a group, and its new timestamps let it become the next-to-serve for its parent entity, then the timestamps of the latter parent entity are recomputed as well, and so on. When a new bfq_queue must be set in service, the reverse path is followed: the next-to-serve highest-level entity is chosen, then its next-to-serve child entity, and so on, until the next-to-serve leaf entity is reached, and the bfq_queue that this entity represents is set in service. Writeback is accounted for on a per-group basis, i.e., for each group, the async I/O requests of the processes of the group are enqueued in a distinct bfq_queue, and the entity associated with this queue is a child of the entity associated with the group. Weights can be assigned explicitly to groups and processes through the cgroups interface, differently from what happens, for single processes, if the cgroups interface is not used (as explained in the description of the previous patch). In particular, since each node has a full scheduler, each group can be assigned its own weight. Signed-off-by: Fabio Checconi <> Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <> Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* block, bfq: introduce the BFQ-v0 I/O scheduler as an extra schedulerPaolo Valente2017-04-191-0/+11
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | We tag as v0 the version of BFQ containing only BFQ's engine plus hierarchical support. BFQ's engine is introduced by this commit, while hierarchical support is added by next commit. We use the v0 tag to distinguish this minimal version of BFQ from the versions containing also the features and the improvements added by next commits. BFQ-v0 coincides with the version of BFQ submitted a few years ago [1], apart from the introduction of preemption, described below. BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, whose general structure, plus a lot of code, are borrowed from CFQ. - Each process doing I/O on a device is associated with a weight and a (bfq_)queue. - BFQ grants exclusive access to the device, for a while, to one queue (process) at a time, and implements this service model by associating every queue with a budget, measured in number of sectors. - After a queue is granted access to the device, the budget of the queue is decremented, on each request dispatch, by the size of the request. - The in-service queue is expired, i.e., its service is suspended, only if one of the following events occurs: 1) the queue finishes its budget, 2) the queue empties, 3) a "budget timeout" fires. - The budget timeout prevents processes doing random I/O from holding the device for too long and dramatically reducing throughput. - Actually, as in CFQ, a queue associated with a process issuing sync requests may not be expired immediately when it empties. In contrast, BFQ may idle the device for a short time interval, giving the process the chance to go on being served if it issues a new request in time. Device idling typically boosts the throughput on rotational devices, if processes do synchronous and sequential I/O. In addition, under BFQ, device idling is also instrumental in guaranteeing the desired throughput fraction to processes issuing sync requests (see [2] for details). - With respect to idling for service guarantees, if several processes are competing for the device at the same time, but all processes (and groups, after the following commit) have the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling the device. Throughput is thus as high as possible in this common scenario. - Queues are scheduled according to a variant of WF2Q+, named B-WF2Q+, and implemented using an augmented rb-tree to preserve an O(log N) overall complexity. See [2] for more details. B-WF2Q+ is also ready for hierarchical scheduling. However, for a cleaner logical breakdown, the code that enables and completes hierarchical support is provided in the next commit, which focuses exactly on this feature. - B-WF2Q+ guarantees a tight deviation with respect to an ideal, perfectly fair, and smooth service. In particular, B-WF2Q+ guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the device throughput proportional to its weight, even if the throughput fluctuates, and regardless of: the device parameters, the current workload and the budgets assigned to the queue. - The last, budget-independence, property (although probably counterintuitive in the first place) is definitely beneficial, for the following reasons: - First, with any proportional-share scheduler, the maximum deviation with respect to an ideal service is proportional to the maximum budget (slice) assigned to queues. As a consequence, BFQ can keep this deviation tight not only because of the accurate service of B-WF2Q+, but also because BFQ *does not* need to assign a larger budget to a queue to let the queue receive a higher fraction of the device throughput. - Second, BFQ is free to choose, for every process (queue), the budget that best fits the needs of the process, or best leverages the I/O pattern of the process. In particular, BFQ updates queue budgets with a simple feedback-loop algorithm that allows a high throughput to be achieved, while still providing tight latency guarantees to time-sensitive applications. When the in-service queue expires, this algorithm computes the next budget of the queue so as to: - Let large budgets be eventually assigned to the queues associated with I/O-bound applications performing sequential I/O: in fact, the longer these applications are served once got access to the device, the higher the throughput is. - Let small budgets be eventually assigned to the queues associated with time-sensitive applications (which typically perform sporadic and short I/O), because, the smaller the budget assigned to a queue waiting for service is, the sooner B-WF2Q+ will serve that queue (Subsec 3.3 in [2]). - Weights can be assigned to processes only indirectly, through I/O priorities, and according to the relation: weight = 10 * (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio). The next patch provides, instead, a cgroups interface through which weights can be assigned explicitly. - If several processes are competing for the device at the same time, but all processes and groups have the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling the device. It uses preemption instead. Throughput is then much higher in this common scenario. - ioprio classes are served in strict priority order, i.e., lower-priority queues are not served as long as there are higher-priority queues. Among queues in the same class, the bandwidth is distributed in proportion to the weight of each queue. A very thin extra bandwidth is however guaranteed to the Idle class, to prevent it from starving. - If the strict_guarantees parameter is set (default: unset), then BFQ - always performs idling when the in-service queue becomes empty; - forces the device to serve one I/O request at a time, by dispatching a new request only if there is no outstanding request. In the presence of differentiated weights or I/O-request sizes, both the above conditions are needed to guarantee that every queue receives its allotted share of the bandwidth (see Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt for more details). Setting strict_guarantees may evidently affect throughput. [1] [2] P. Valente and M. Andreolini, "Improving Application Responsiveness with the BFQ Disk I/O Scheduler", Proceedings of the 5th Annual International Systems and Storage Conference (SYSTOR '12), June 2012. Slightly extended version: results.pdf Signed-off-by: Fabio Checconi <> Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <> Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* blk-mq: introduce Kyber multiqueue I/O schedulerOmar Sandoval2017-04-141-0/+9
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | The Kyber I/O scheduler is an I/O scheduler for fast devices designed to scale to multiple queues. Users configure only two knobs, the target read and synchronous write latencies, and the scheduler tunes itself to achieve that latency goal. The implementation is based on "tokens", built on top of the scalable bitmap library. Tokens serve as a mechanism for limiting requests. There are two tiers of tokens: queueing tokens and dispatch tokens. A queueing token is required to allocate a request. In fact, these tokens are actually the blk-mq internal scheduler tags, but the scheduler manages the allocation directly in order to implement its policy. Dispatch tokens are device-wide and split up into two scheduling domains: reads vs. writes. Each hardware queue dispatches batches round-robin between the scheduling domains as long as tokens are available for that domain. These tokens can be used as the mechanism to enable various policies. The policy Kyber uses is inspired by active queue management techniques for network routing, similar to blk-wbt. The scheduler monitors latencies and scales the number of dispatch tokens accordingly. Queueing tokens are used to prevent starvation of synchronous requests by asynchronous requests. Various extensions are possible, including better heuristics and ionice support. The new scheduler isn't set as the default yet. Signed-off-by: Omar Sandoval <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* block: get rid of blk-mq default scheduler choice Kconfig entriesJens Axboe2017-02-221-44/+0
| | | | | | | | | | The wording in the entries were poor and not understandable by even deities. Kill the selection for default block scheduler, and impose a policy with sane defaults. Architected-by: Linus Torvalds <> Reviewed-by: Omar Sandoval <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* blk-mq-sched: allow setting of default IO schedulerJens Axboe2017-01-171-6/+50
| | | | | | | | | | | Add Kconfig entries to manage what devices get assigned an MQ scheduler, and add a blk-mq flag for drivers to opt out of scheduling. The latter is useful for admin type queues that still allocate a blk-mq queue and tag set, but aren't use for normal IO. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <> Reviewed-by: Bart Van Assche <> Reviewed-by: Omar Sandoval <>
* mq-deadline: add blk-mq adaptation of the deadline IO schedulerJens Axboe2017-01-171-0/+6
| | | | | | | | | This is basically identical to deadline-iosched, except it registers as a MQ capable scheduler. This is still a single queue design. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <> Reviewed-by: Bart Van Assche <> Reviewed-by: Omar Sandoval <>
* blkcg: make CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP boolTejun Heo2012-03-061-4/+0
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Block cgroup core can be built as module; however, it isn't too useful as blk-throttle can only be built-in and cfq-iosched is usually the default built-in scheduler. Scheduled blkcg cleanup requires calling into blkcg from block core. To simplify that, disallow building blkcg as module by making CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP bool. If building blkcg core as module really matters, which I doubt, we can revisit it after blkcg API cleanup. -v2: Vivek pointed out that IOSCHED_CFQ was incorrectly updated to depend on BLK_CGROUP. Fixed. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <> Cc: Vivek Goyal <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* blk-cgroup: config options re-arrangementVivek Goyal2010-04-261-11/+5
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | This patch fixes few usability and configurability issues. o All the cgroup based controller options are configurable from "Genral Setup/Control Group Support/" menu. blkio is the only exception. Hence make this option visible in above menu and make it configurable from there to bring it inline with rest of the cgroup based controllers. o Get rid of CONFIG_DEBUG_CFQ_IOSCHED. This option currently does two things. - Enable printing of cgroup paths in blktrace - Enables CONFIG_DEBUG_BLK_CGROUP, which in turn displays additional stat files in cgroup. If we are using group scheduling, blktrace data is of not really much use if cgroup information is not present. To get this data, currently one has to also enable CONFIG_DEBUG_CFQ_IOSCHED, which in turn brings the overhead of all the additional debug stat files which is not desired. Hence, this patch moves printing of cgroup paths under CONFIG_CFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED. This allows us to get rid of CONFIG_DEBUG_CFQ_IOSCHED completely. Now all the debug stat files are controlled only by CONFIG_DEBUG_BLK_CGROUP which can be enabled through config menu. Signed-off-by: Vivek Goyal <> Acked-by: Divyesh Shah <> Reviewed-by: Gui Jianfeng <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* cgroups: blkio subsystem as moduleBen Blum2010-03-121-1/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Modify the Block I/O cgroup subsystem to be able to be built as a module. As the CFQ disk scheduler optionally depends on blk-cgroup, config options in block/Kconfig, block/Kconfig.iosched, and block/blk-cgroup.h are enhanced to support the new module dependency. Signed-off-by: Ben Blum <> Cc: Li Zefan <> Cc: Paul Menage <> Cc: "David S. Miller" <> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Cc: Lai Jiangshan <> Cc: Vivek Goyal <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
* blkio: Allow CFQ group IO scheduling even when CFQ is a moduleVivek Goyal2009-12-041-1/+1
| | | | | | | | o Now issues of blkio controller and CFQ in module mode should be fixed. Enable the cfq group scheduling support in module mode. Signed-off-by: Vivek Goyal <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* io controller: quick fix for blk-cgroup and modular CFQJens Axboe2009-12-041-1/+1
| | | | | | It's currently not an allowed configuration, so express that in Kconfig. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* blkio: Some debugging aids for CFQVivek Goyal2009-12-031-0/+9
| | | | | | | o Some debugging aids for CFQ. Signed-off-by: Vivek Goyal <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* blkio: Introduce per cfq group weights and vdisktime calculationsVivek Goyal2009-12-031-1/+8
| | | | | | | | | o Bring in the per cfq group weight and how vdisktime is calculated for the group. Also bring in the functionality of updating the min_vdisktime of the group service tree. Signed-off-by: Vivek Goyal <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* blkio: Introduce blkio controller cgroup interfaceVivek Goyal2009-12-031-0/+1
| | | | | | | | | o This is basic implementation of blkio controller cgroup interface. This is the common interface visible to user space and should be used by different IO control policies as we implement those. Signed-off-by: Vivek Goyal <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* block: CFQ is more than a desktop schedulerJens Axboe2009-10-031-1/+3
| | | | | | Update Kconfig.iosched entry. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* block: remove the anticipatory IO schedulerJens Axboe2009-10-031-18/+4
| | | | | | | | | AS is mostly a subset of CFQ, so there's little point in still providing this separate IO scheduler. Hopefully at some point we can get down to one single IO scheduler again, at least this brings us closer by having only one intelligent IO scheduler. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* update I/O sched Kconfig help texts - CFQ is now default, not AS.Jesper Juhl2007-02-171-4/+5
| | | | | | | | Change I/O scheduler description to correctly show CFQ as being the default scheduler and not the anticipatory scheduler that previously was default. Signed-off-by: Jesper Juhl <> Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <>
* [PATCH] BLOCK: Make it possible to disable the block layer [try #6]David Howells2006-09-301-0/+3
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Make it possible to disable the block layer. Not all embedded devices require it, some can make do with just JFFS2, NFS, ramfs, etc - none of which require the block layer to be present. This patch does the following: (*) Introduces CONFIG_BLOCK to disable the block layer, buffering and blockdev support. (*) Adds dependencies on CONFIG_BLOCK to any configuration item that controls an item that uses the block layer. This includes: (*) Block I/O tracing. (*) Disk partition code. (*) All filesystems that are block based, eg: Ext3, ReiserFS, ISOFS. (*) The SCSI layer. As far as I can tell, even SCSI chardevs use the block layer to do scheduling. Some drivers that use SCSI facilities - such as USB storage - end up disabled indirectly from this. (*) Various block-based device drivers, such as IDE and the old CDROM drivers. (*) MTD blockdev handling and FTL. (*) JFFS - which uses set_bdev_super(), something it could avoid doing by taking a leaf out of JFFS2's book. (*) Makes most of the contents of linux/blkdev.h, linux/buffer_head.h and linux/elevator.h contingent on CONFIG_BLOCK being set. sector_div() is, however, still used in places, and so is still available. (*) Also made contingent are the contents of linux/mpage.h, linux/genhd.h and parts of linux/fs.h. (*) Makes a number of files in fs/ contingent on CONFIG_BLOCK. (*) Makes mm/bounce.c (bounce buffering) contingent on CONFIG_BLOCK. (*) set_page_dirty() doesn't call __set_page_dirty_buffers() if CONFIG_BLOCK is not enabled. (*) fs/no-block.c is created to hold out-of-line stubs and things that are required when CONFIG_BLOCK is not set: (*) Default blockdev file operations (to give error ENODEV on opening). (*) Makes some /proc changes: (*) /proc/devices does not list any blockdevs. (*) /proc/diskstats and /proc/partitions are contingent on CONFIG_BLOCK. (*) Makes some compat ioctl handling contingent on CONFIG_BLOCK. (*) If CONFIG_BLOCK is not defined, makes sys_quotactl() return -ENODEV if given command other than Q_SYNC or if a special device is specified. (*) In init/do_mounts.c, no reference is made to the blockdev routines if CONFIG_BLOCK is not defined. This does not prohibit NFS roots or JFFS2. (*) The bdflush, ioprio_set and ioprio_get syscalls can now be absent (return error ENOSYS by way of cond_syscall if so). (*) The seclvl_bd_claim() and seclvl_bd_release() security calls do nothing if CONFIG_BLOCK is not set, since they can't then happen. Signed-Off-By: David Howells <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* [PATCH] Make CFQ the default IO schedulerJens Axboe2006-06-231-1/+1
| | | | Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* [BLOCK] iosched: fix setting of default io schedulerJens Axboe2005-11-041-3/+3
| | | | | | | | | With the recent reorg of the io scheduler selection, it unfortunately became possible to select an io scheduler to be the default even if it wasn't builtin. Fix this by requiring the default scheduler to be builtin. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
* [BLOCK] Move all core block layer code to new block/ directoryJens Axboe2005-11-041-0/+69
drivers/block/ is right now a mix of core and driver parts. Lets move the core parts to a new top level directory. Al will move the fs/ related block parts to block/ next. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>